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Journal of International Law an International Relations
 

Journal of International Law and International Relations 2009 — N 3

Summaries 


International Law

International Humanitarian Law

The Khabarovsk Tribunal for Japanese War Criminals (Towards the 60th Anniversary) — Vladimir Baryshev

International Private Law

The Problem of Definition of the Personal Law of the International Intergovernmental Organisation — Olga Kokhnenko

International Relations 

Towards Andrey A. Gromyko’s Centenary

The Role of Belarus in Andrey A. Gromyko’s Life and Activities — Victor Shadursky

Andrey A. Gromyko and the Issue of Inclusion of the USSR Republics into the United Nations Founder-States — Vladimir Snapkovsky

History of International Relations — XX Century 

Polish Emigrant Government's Diplomacy Towards the USSR at the End of 1942 — April 1943 — Vitaly Barabash

The Middle East Issues

Sources on the Palestinian-Israeli Settlement in the late XX — early XXI Century — Marina Sheveliova

King Abdullah’s Policy towards Jerusalem in 1949—1951 — Anastasiya Ioksha

Syria’s Foreign Policy in the Iraqi-Kuwait Conflict in 1990 — Feras Sallum

Refugee Issues

Project "Local Integration of Refugees in Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine" — Tatiana Selivanova (only russian)

Practice of Migration Bodies’ Activities of the Kingdom of Belgium on Interaction with Asylum-Seekers — Sergey Kasinsky (only russian)

The United Kingdom Policy in Granting Asylum in 1990—1997 — Andrey Zubarev

Historiography 

The European Vector of Great Britain’s Foreign Policy in 1997—2007 (Russian and English Language Historiography) — Alexey Muslimov

Inernational Experience

The Irish National Question: a Foreign Author’s View — Wawrzyniec Konarski

International Economic Relations

The Problems of Measurement and Assessment of Life Quality in Economic Science — Anna Zenkova, Sergey Solodovnikov

The Corporate Management Objectives With Regard to Financial Crisis — Alexander Kovalev, Pavel Malyukovich

Theoretical Grounds of Economic Transnationalisation — Hu Junrong


English Summaries


«The Khabarovsk Tribunal for Japanese War Criminals (Towards the 60th Anniversary)» (Vladimir Baryshev)

The article is dedicated to the sixtieth anniversary of the Tribunal, which condemned twelve Japanese military criminals guilty of preparing and conducting a bacteriological war on the territory of China from 1938 to 1945. The main facts which were confirmed during the process are given in the article, such as the evidence of development and production of bacteriological weapons, the evidence of their use in China in 1940—1942, the evidence of running criminal experiments on people. At the same time the article reveals the reasons for the USA and Great Britain having refused to create the World Military Court, proposed by the USSR, and to transfer there as military criminals those people who had led the creating and use of bacteriological weapons, including Hirohito, the Emperor of Japan.


«The Problem of Definition of the Personal Law of the International Intergovernmental Organisation» (Olga Kokhnenko)

The international intergovernmental organisation is one of the basic subjects of international public law. At the same time intergovernmental organisations with a view of realisation of the functions assigned to them enter into civil-law, labour and other relations. The present article is devoted to the research into the civil status of the international intergovernmental organisation.

The article analyzes the approaches to definition of the right subject to application to definition of the civil status of the international organisation. According to the author the definition of the civil status of the international intergovernmental organisation should consider reference to the right which is subject to application, as a connecting factor to «the personal law of the international intergovernmental organisation».


«The Role of Belarus in Andrey A. Gromyko’s Life and Activities» (Victor Shadursky)

The article is devoted to the birth centenary of the famous Belarusian Andrey A. Gromyko (1909—1989) who was the head of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs for nearly 30 years. Main attention is paid to the study of his activities as a member of the parliament, his visits to Belarus, meetings with representatives of the public of this Soviet republic. The author made a conclusion on the necessity of a more thorough study of the issue of the role of Belarus in Andrey A. Gromyko’s life and activities.


«Andrey A. Gromyko and the Issue of Inclusion of the USSR Republics into the United Nations Founder-States» (Vladimir Snapkovsky)

The article considers the activities of the USSR ambassador in the USA Andrey A. Gromyko which were aimed at implementation of the Soviet initiative on including all 16 Soviet republics into the Founder-states of the United Nations Organisation. The author analyzed the specific historical conditions at the Allied Powers’ conference in Dumbarton Oaks in August 1944 when A. A. Gromyko put forward this ambitious Soviet plan, aimed at fostering the international position of the USSR in the international organization planned. The article characterizes the reaction of the USA towards Soviet demand as well as A. A. Gromyko’s activities during the preparation of conferences in Yalta and San Francisco to promote the Soviet plan of actions, in particular, the invitation of BSSR and UkSSR delegations to the founding conference.


«Polish Emigrant Government's Diplomacy Towards the USSR at the End of 1942 — April 1943» (Vitaly Barabash)

The article deals with Soviet-Polish relations during World War II. The author analyses the causes and developments of the crisis of the alliance between Poland and the USSR at the end of 1942 — April 1943 and reveals the role of the main political forces which influenced this process. The alliance concluded between the USSR and the Polish emigrant government against Germany had inherent insoluble contradictions from the very beginning, primarily, on the issues of the inter-state borders and the citizenship of the people on the disputed territories. The Polish emigrant government depended on the support of Great Britain and the USA for its success. While exaggerating the potential of the western allies, this government would not notice the scope of the growing power of the USSR. W. Sikorski whose policy was not at all flexible, led the Cabinet that found the Soviet leaders' main strategic aims unacceptable. As a result, as the USSR's military and political position grew stronger, J. Stalin chose cut down the relations with the Polish emigrant.


«Sources on the Palestinian-Israeli Settlement in the late XX — early XXI century» (Marina Sheveliova)

The article introduces a classification and a short review of the documents on the Palestinian-Israeli settlement (1991—2003) published by the negotiators in 1996—2006. The documents under consideration are divided into two groups: the documents published once and those which have several published versions. The first group includes protocols of some negotiation sessions and drafts of the agreements of five unofficial «channels of negotiations» held in 1992—2000. The verification of these publications is difficult, though it is disclosed that the publications of the documents of the Norwegian negotiations (1993) are not quite authentic. The documents of the second group which include three unofficial agreements and the US President proposal on the issues of the permanent status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (the Clinton Plan) have several published versions. The unofficial publications of these documents accomplished by the negotiators are more authentic though they contain some disparities. The negotiators’ unwillingness to make an agreement public (the Beilin — Abu Mazen Agreement) or the absence of the written version of the document (the Clinton Plan) account for the absence of their official publications.


«King Abdullah’s Policy towards Jerusalem in 1949—1951» (Anastasiya Ioksha)

After the First Arab-Israeli war of 1948—1949 Eastern Jerusalem with the Old City came under the jurisdiction of Jordan. Being more developed then the capital of Transjordan, Jerusalem became one of the most significant concerns in King Abdullah’s domestic policy. The article is devoted to the main aspects of Jordan-Israeli secret negotiations, by means of which a mutual agreement could have beeт achieved. This course was not successful due to the contradictions between Jordan and Israel, the opposition of Arab countries and Palestinians. King Abdullah’s actions in connection with the Holy Places were taken to enhance the prestige of Jerusalem in the Muslim world. The establishment of the position of the custodian of the Holy Places affected Jordan-Palestinian relations in future.


«Syria’s Foreign Policy in the Iraqi-Kuwait Conflict in 1990» (Feras Sallum)

The article is devoted to the analysis of Syria’s foreign policy in the Iraqi-Kuwait conflict in 1990.The author considers the basic directions of the activity of the Syrian leadership in the regional policy during the crisis in the Persian Gulf. Special attention is given to the foreign policy outcome of this conflict for Syria.


«The United Kingdom Policy in Granting Asylum in 1990—1997» (Andrey Zubarev)

The article considers the evolution of the policy of John Major's Conservative government (1990—1997) in granting asylum. The political context for creating a system of treatment of refugees and asylum-seekers in Britain was determined by the end of the Cold War, the pre-domination of Thatcherist ideology in the Conservative Party in the 1990s and the processes of European integration. The Conservative government of John Major made important steps towards a comprehensive approach to asylum granting policy. This was manifested by the implementation of the 1951 Convention relating to the status of refugees. Nevertheless the Conservative policy on refugees was characterized by special attention to regulating the entry of the asylum-seekers instead of settling the issues of their adaptation and by the tendency to use the procedures not to be accounted for in Parliament.


«The European Vector of Great Britain’s Foreign Policy in 1997—2007 (Russian and English Language Historiography)» (Alexey Muslimov)

This article is devoted to investigation of sources about the European vector in British foreign policy during Tony Blair government (1997—2007). The article presents a historiographical review of a great number of publications on this topic.

There is no scientific research of this problem in Belarusian historiography. It is Western English-speaking scholars, mainly British, who gave more attention to this area, such as S. Bulmer, M. Smith, C. Hay; that is why the English language sources predominate. Russian authors devoted less attention to the topic than their Western colleagues; nevertheless such scientists as S. Peregudov, A. Gromyko, A. Valuev etc. made a valuable contribution to researching this topic.

The study of the publications shows that the New Labour played an important role in creating a counterbalance to the French-German «locomotor». At the same time discussions persist in British society on the necessity, scope and forms of Britain’s participation in European integration.


«The Irish National Question: a Foreign Author’s View» (Wawrzyniec Konarski)

The article discovers the process of building of the Irish nation and formation of the integrated state from the perspective of internal conflicts. The main facts of tensions between Catholics and Protestant communities conditioned by historical, ethnical and religious reasons are pointed out. The author describes political processes and analyses the measures which had been taken to settle the situation. The necessary prerequisites for creation of united and democratic Ireland are also noted.


«The Problems of Measurement and Assessment of Life Quality in Economic Science» (Anna Zenkova, Sergey Solodovnikov)

The article considers problems of measurement and objective assessment of the quality of life of population on the basis of various methodological approaches. The authors show the evolution of methods of assessment of the quality of life. The approach to measurement of the quality of life by integrated indices is considered in detail and a critical analysis of the techniques of estimation of common welfare is carried out.

The research specifies that the Russian and domestic methods are focused on the regional measurement of differentiation in the quality of life and demonstrate a great number of components. The application of the factorial analysis is expedient in the methods oriented at management. It is noted that the complete approach for measurement of common welfare still remains an open question for scientists. In the conditions of transition to the sustainable development concept it is deemed necessary to work out a government program which would include monitoring and estimation of life quality so as perfect regulation of regional policy.


«The Corporate Management Objectives With Regard to Financial Crisis» (Alexander Kovalev, Pavel Malyukovich)

The article analyzes the causes of radical changes in the objectives of corporate management which have taken place over the last years. The authors consider the institutional changes which have influenced the companies' top management motivation. The inadequacy of the aim of business value maximization against the rationale of company activities in the conditions of enforcing market bubble is argued. Various types of Boards of Directors are shown to have led to comparable results. The authors make a suggestion that stock market bubble deflating will lead to the companies' going back to profit as the aim of corporate management.


«Theoretical Grounds of Economic Transnationalisation» (Hu Junrong)

Spreading of the phenomenon of transnational companies, the growth of their role and influence on the development not only of some states and regions but also on the global economic system in general determined the rise of the studies of the issues of global transnationalisation. However, the economic science still has no common vision of the essence of the given process. With this in view the aim of this article is development of a universal vision of economic transnationalisation that would reflect specific features of this processes and take into consideration all its possible manifestations.

The investigation resulted in specifying the notion «economic transnationalisation» on the basis of analysis, and summing up of the main theoretical approaches. The author suggests a definition which includes all characteristic features of this process, simultaneously reflecting both micro- and macroeconomic aspects, i. e. has a universal nature.


 

This publication was prepared in the framework of EU AENEAS — UNHCR project “Strengthening the Protection Capacity in the Republic of Belarus — phase II” 
project_0708
 
 
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