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Journal of International Law an International Relations
 

Journal of International Law and International Relations 2012 — N 4

Summaries 


International Law

International Migration Law

Human Migration: Concept, Reasons, Consequences — Alexander Fedorako

International Cooperation in Combatting Crime

Functions of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes in Combatting Human Trafficking Especially in Women and Children — Olga Emelyanovich

International Space Law

The Legal Regime of International Direct Satellite Broadcasting — Iliya Adamov

International Relations

Migration Policy of the French Governments at the End of the 20th — Beginning of the 21st Century — Konstantin Snisarenko 

Military Force as the Main Structural Component of the Belarusian State Military Security — Alexander Glamazda

The Treaty of Arras of 1435 in the History of Diplomacy of the Hundred Year’s War — Dmitry Cherkasov

Problems of Relations between Israel and the Palestine in Russian Studies (the 1990s—2000s) — Miria Sidorenko

Documents and Materials

Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (only Russian)

Norway’s Experience in Dealing with Refugees and Asylum Seekers — Alexander Tatura, Tatiana Tumashik (only Russian)

International Economic Relations

Migration Policy of the Common Economic Space Countries: Comparative Analysis — Iryna Zaharets

The Labour Force Mobility in the European Union — Anastasia Nesterova

The Innovative Development of the European Countries with Small Economies in the Context of Social Capital Concept — Olga Zhukovskaya


English summaries


«Human Migration: Concept, Reasons, Consequences» (Alexander Fedorako)

The article deals with the concept of human migration, its types and reasons for migration movement. Different interpretations of the term «human migration», approaches to classification of migration types and consequences of migration processes are analyzed. Some measures to improve the legislation of the Republic of Belarus in the sphere of human migration are proposed in the article.


«Functions of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes in Combatting Human Trafficking Especially in Women and Children» (Olga Emelyanovich)

The article analyzes the UN Office on Drugs and Crimes activities in combatting human trafficking especially in women and children. The author defines the functions of the UN Office on Drugs and Crimes as those of regulation, coordination, education and information, specifying the strengths and weaknesses of each. In the conclusion recommendations are given to improve the work of the UN Office on Drugs and Crimes while implementing these functions.


«The Legal Regime of International Direct Satellite Broadcasting» (Iliya Adamov)

The purpose of the article is to explore the legal regime of the direct satellite broadcasting. The article provides an analysis of the existing international regulatory sources in the area, preparatory work of the 1982 UN Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting, prospects of the progressive development of international law and institutional framework of the States’ cooperation in this field. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the most topical issue nowadays as regards direct satellite broadcasting is the safeguarding of an access to the geostationary orbit for the States and other actors interested in deployment of DBS networks. Legal issues of the transboundary information transfer are examined within the context of the topic researched. The article also touches upon instances of illegal use of the DBS techniques (e. g. for propaganda), providing examples of the States’ counteraction to such activities.


«Migration Policy of the French Governments at the End of the 20th — Beginning of the 21st Century» (Konstantin Snisarenko)

The article deals with the analysis of migration policy of the French governments at the end of the 20th  — beginning of the 21st century. Factors, which influenced the changes of migration policy of France, are revealed, the main periods of reforms are identified. The author came to the conclusions that French politicians’ approach to immigration changed during the indicated period: from aspiration to stop the increase in the number of immigrants in the 1970s to selective regulation of migration processes in the 2000s. The nature and content of migration policy of the French governments also transformed: from the global ideological projects to concrete pragmatic actions. State functions to regulate immigration became more diverse: from simple control of arrivals and foreigners’ stay in the country the French governments turned to the issues of regulation of naturalization and integration of immigrants into the receiving society. From the 1990s the initiative of reforming migration legislation as well as the number of functions to control migration flows switched from the national French government to the common European supranational bodies.


«Military Force as the Main Structural Component of the Belarusian State Military Security» (Alexander Glamazda)

The article analyzes the essence, peculiarities and functions of a country’s military force, which is one of the main categories of military and political theory. Under the current conditions the military force has been increasingly used to achieve political goals in different regions of the world, which is reflected in the evolution of its functions and peculiarities. The author uses the provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Republic of Belarus to reveal the aims, conditions and tasks for a possible use of the military force of the Belarusian State.


«The Treaty of Arras of 1435 in the History of Diplomacy of the Hundred Year’s War» (Dmitry Cherkasov)

The article is devoted to one of the most important diplomatic events of the last period of the Hundred Year’s War — signing of a peace treaty in Arras in 1435 between the King of France and the Duke of Burgundy. The civil war of 1405—1435 in France led to the Duke of Burgundy siding with England, which resulted in the split of the state and put the French monarchy on the brink of catastrophe. Exacerbation of contradictions between England and Burgundy and the efforts of the French diplomacy in the 1420s — the first half of the 1430s allowed to reach the signing of the Peace Treaty between France and Burgundy in Arras. The Treaty of Arras formalized the Union between France and Burgundy, stopping the civil war in France and accelerated the ousting of the English from the country. Simultaneously, it gave the Duke of Burgundy actual independence from the French Crown.


«Problems of Relations between Israel and the Palestine in Russian Studies (the 1990s—2000s)» (Maria Sidorenko)

Some distinctive features of contemporary Russian historiography on the problem of relations between Israel and Palestine are considered in the article. It is noted that keen interest in this subject is determined by the active role of Russia in the sponsorship of the Middle East peace process. The author comes to the conclusion that the diversity of the approaches to many aspects of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict indicates a certain bias of Russian researchers.


«Migration Policy of the Common Economic Space Countries: Comparative Analysis» (Iryna Zaharets)

The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the Common Economic Space member-states’ migration policy. The analysis results in valuable practical recommendations for development and implementation of migration policy in our country.

The emerging common labor market of the Common Economic Space is forcing Belarus to enter open competition for qualified labor force.

What is needed is the improvement of the existing mechanism for implementation of the adopted migration policy, for differentiation of approaches to various categories of emigrants and combatting immigration undesirable for the country.


«The Labour Force Mobility in the European Union» (Anastasia Nesterova)

The article considers the labour force mobility in the European Union, focusing on the analysis of the labour migrants’ flows after the European Union enlargement in 2004 and 2007. On the basis of his research the author reveals that the freedom of movement of labour force in the enlarged European Union may be considered as a means of improvement of human capital distribution. The analysis of transition measures to access labour markets for the EU-15 reflected their significant impact on constitution and direction of migration flows after the EU enlargement. The consequences of labour force mobility in the framework of the European Union have not been sufficiently researched, but it is possible to affirm that the freedom of the labour force movement improves the efficiency of resources distribution on the European labour markets, creates innovative potential for development and increases its productivity.


«The Innovative Development of the European Countries with Small Economies in the Context of Social Capital Concept» (Olga Zhukovskaya)

The article considers the share of social capital in the innovative development of certain European countries with small economies of Northern, Western, Central and Eastern Europe. The significant role of social capital as the tool that reduces the transaction costs of innovation development for small economies is argued on the basis of the indicators of the social capital level in a society and the innovation economy evaluation indices. The main advantages and disadvantages in the innovation sphere of small European states in terms of social capital concept are revealed. The article develops the mechanisms for enhancing the role of social capital in the innovative development of the Belarusian state and suggests some practical recommendations for the accumulation and effective usage of social capital for the innovative development of the Republic of Belarus considering the European experience.


This publication was prepared in the framework of EU — UNHCR project “Regional Protection Programme (Phase II)”
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